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Nanotechnology in medicine

Nanotechnology is the science of maneuvering and modifying the structure and properties of matter at an atomic and molecular scale. Due to these manipulations, inert elements start to function as catalyst, and insoluble matter develop unique solubility capacity. Likewise, non-colloids begin exhibiting excellent colloidal properties and electrical non-conductors start conducting electricity. All these materials can be used for a vast variety of purposes in field as diverse as medicine, energy production and electronics.

In recent years, nanotechnology has found innumerable applications in the field of medicine — from drug delivery systems, nanorobots and cell repair machines to imaging, nanoparticles and nanonephrology. Owing to the extensive use of nanomaterials in medical equipments and devices, nanomedicine has become a significant branch of nanotechnology. Here are some important uses of nanotechnology in the field of medicine. All these things prove that nanotechnology will play a significant role in the future, and shows why is nanotechnology useful.

Drug delivery system and nanoparticles
The primary objective of the drug delivery system is to make the life-saving drug available in that part of the body where it is required the most. However, most of the time, these systems fail to work efficiently because the particles of the drug are too large for the cells to absorb, or they are insoluble or they have the potential to cause tissue damage. On the other hand, due to their exceedingly small size, nanoparticles are easily taken up by the cell. Moreover, they are completely soluble and they do not also damage the tissues. In nutshell, the efficiency of the drug delivery system can be increased several times by integrating nanoparticles with them.
Coupling of nanoparticles with biopharmaceuticals
Biopharmaceuticals are peptides or protein molecules that trigger multiple reactions in the human body. They are widely used in the treatment of life-threatening diseases like cancer. The effectiveness of biopharmaceuticals can be increased several times by coupling them with nanoparticles, which will proficiently deliver the peptides or proteins at the tumor site and in this manner cure cancer without causing extensive damage to the adjacent tissues and organs.

Nanotechnology and neuro-electronic devices
Neuro-electronic devices are unique machines based on nanotechnology that connect the nervous system with the computer. These devices not just detect and interpret the signals from the nervous system, but also control and respond to them. They can be used in the treatment of diseases that slowly and steadily decay the nervous system like multiple sclerosis.

Nanonephrology
This is a sub-branch of nanomedicine which is concerned with the detection and treatment of kidney diseases. Here various devices based on nanotechnology are used for the studying the different kidney processes and detecting disorders. Thereafter, nanoparticles and drug delivery system are used for curing the disorder.

Nanotechnology and cell repair machines
These cell repair machines use nanotechnology to penetrate into the cell and rectify disorders like DNA damage or enzyme deficiency. These machines are no bigger than a bacteria or virus.

Nanorobots
The entry of nanorobots will literally revolutionize the world of medicine. These miniature devices would not only be capable of entering into the body and detecting the diseases and infection, but they will also be capable of repairing internal injuries and wounds.

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